С.М. Костенко, И.Б. Борковская, Т.Н. Михельсон, Н.В. Успенская
Для научных работников
ПО РАЗВИТИЮ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ
Предлагаемое пособие предназначено для развития навыков устной речи в группах аспирантов и научных сотрудников, готовящихся к сдаче кандидатского экзамена по английскому языку и при работе в студенческих группах.
Пособие представляет собой сборник текстов и упражнений к ним и состоит из четырех разделов:
“Biography of a Scientist” (составитель Т. Н. Михельсон); “Scientific Institution” (составитель Н. В. Успенская); “Scientific Gathering” (составитель С. М. Костенко); “Discussing Current Professional Literature” (составитель И. Б. Борковская). Общее руководство работой над пособием осуществляла С. М. Костенко.
Каждый раздел включает несколько оригинальных (неадаптированных, но сокращенных) текстов на данную тему. При их отборе авторы стремились к тому, чтобы каждый текст носил общенаучный характер, достаточно легко пересказывался и был насыщен лексикой, связанной с научной работой. Тексты пособия заимствованы из следующих источников: биографии ученых — из английских и американских энциклопедий; тексты раздела “Scientific Institution” — из американского путеводителя, журнала “Civil Engineering”, а текст “Imperial College” — рассказ английского физика о своем колледже, записанный на магнитофон;
тексты раздела “Scientific Gathering” взяты из журнала “Nature”; тексты последнего раздела — из журнала “Endeanour”.
Целью упражнений является развитие различных видов речевой деятельности (говорение, письменная речь, восприятие со слуха, перевод). Все упражнения можно подразделить на:
а) упражнения на проверку понимания текстового материала учащимися, б) лексикограмматические упражнения, в) учебнокоммуникативные упражнения (их подавляющее большинство), г) упражнения на контроль усвоения материала (перевод с русского), д) упражнения (в виде небольших текстов) на развитие понимания английской речи на слух.
Данное пособие выходит 2м изданием (1е изд. вышло в 1970 г.). Тексты оставлены без изменений, поскольку они представляют собой основу учебного материала, предназначенного для активного усвоения. Упражнения подверглись весьма значительной переработке. Подавляющее большинство тренировочных упражнений заменено условноречевыми и речевыми упражнениями, что отвечает принципам современной коммуникативной методики.
======================== PART I ======================== BIOGRAPHY OF A SCIENTIST Text I NIELS BOHR (1885—1962) Bohr is a Danish physicist, one of the most ingenious interpreters of his generation of the problems of modern theoretical physics. Born in Copenhagen on October 7, 1885, he did physics at the University of Copenhagen, obtaining his doctor's degree in 1911 and proceeded immediately to Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge for further study under Sir J. J. Thomson. In 1912 he moved to Manchester University, where he was associated with Ernest Rutherford in the latter's atomic research. In 1914, following a year as lecturer at the University of Copenhagen Bohr returned to Manchester, remaining there until 1916, when he was made professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen.
In 1920, largely due to Bohr's efforts, the Institute of Theoretical Physics was established at Copenhagen. He became its first head and under him the Institute has become an important centre for the development of theoretical and experimental physics. Prior to World War II Bohr's Institute had become the world centre for atomic physics.
Just before World War II, Bohr advanced the idea that the compound nucleus was fundamental to the phenomena of nuclear disintegration, a concept that proved fruitful in later work. In collaboration with John Archibald Wheeler he proposed a theory of nuclear fission that led to atomic research which produced the atomic bomb.
In 1943, after the Nazis had occupied Denmark, Bohr escaped to England in a small boat. Making the way to the United States, he took a leading part in the atomic bomb project, working mainly at the laboratory established in early 1943 at Los Alamos in New Mexico. In 1944—1945 Bohr served as adviser to the Scientific Staff of the Manhatten Project. In 1945 Bohr returned to Copenhagen to resume his duties as director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics.
Bohr's great achievement was recognized internationally by the Nobel prize award to him in 1922 for his study of atomic structure and radiation. In 1957 he was of the Atoms for Peace award. That same year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he delivered his lecture on the Philosophical Lessons of Atomic Progress.
Exercises Ex. 1. Read aloud the statements below and translate them into Russian paying special attention to the parts in italics.
1. Bohr is one of the most ingenious interpreters of his generation of the problems of modern theoretical physics. 2. He did physics at the University of Copenhagen, obtaining his doctor's degree in 1911. 3. He proceeded immediately to Cambridge for further studies under Thomson. 4. In 1912 he moved to Manchester University where he was associated with Rutherford in the latter's atomic research. 5. In 1914, following a year as lecturer at the University of Copenhagen, Bohr returned to Manchester. 6. In 1920, largely due to Bohr's efforts, the Institute of Theoretical Physics was established at Copenhagen. 7. Bohr became its first head and under him the Institute has become a world famous centre of research. 8. Bohr took a leading part in the atomic bomb project, working mainly at the laboratory established in early 1943. 9. In 1944—1945 Bohr served as adviser to the scientific staff of the Manhattan project. 10. In 1945 Bohr returned to Copenhagen to resume his duties as director of the Institute. 11. Bohr's great achievement was recognized internationally by the Nobel prize award to him. 12. In 1957 he was the first recipient of the Atoms for Peace Award. 13. That same year he delivered his lecture on the Philosophical Lessons of Atomic Progress.
Ex. 2. Answer the following questions using words and expressions from the text for those in italics.
Where did Bohr study physics? He did physics at the University of Copenhagen.
1. When did Bohr graduate, from the University? 2. Where did he go in 1912? 3. What idea did he put forward just before World War II? 4. Did he advance this idea alone or working together with Wheeler? 5. Did he participate in atomic research? 6. When did he come back to Copenhagen? 7. When did Bohr's contribution win him international recognition? 8. Was he the first to receive the Atoms for peace award? 9. When did he give his lecture on the Philosophical Lessons of Atomic Progress? Ex. 3. Ask and answer questions about outstanding people in different fields of human activity. Use the indefinite article before nouns denoting profession. Here is the list of nouns and adjectives for you to choose from: architect, artist, composer, inventor, playwright, philosopher, poet, writer, scientist, archaeologist, astronomer, biologist, biochemist, botanist, chemist, historian, mathematician, philologist, physiologist, physicist; famous, worldfamous, wellknown, worldknown, eminent, outstanding, prominent, distinguished, etc.
a) 1. Was Dalton a scientist? 2. Yes, he was a distinguished scientist.
b) 1. Was Hopkins a writer? 2. No, he wasn't. He was an outstanding biochemist.
Speak in the same way about Aristotle, Beethhoven, Byron, Darwin, Dickens, Edison, Einstein, Faraday, Rossi, Levitan, Lobachevski, Mendeleyev, Newton, Pavlov, Rembrandt, Rutherford, B. Shaw, J. Grimm, Schlieman, Tchaikovski, Tolstoy and others.
Ex. 4. Agree with the following statements. Use: theoretical (experimental) physicist, postgraduate student, first (second, etc.) year student, researcher, lecturer etc.
As far as I know, Petrov is in his third fear at the University.
Yes, you're right (that's right; exactly). He is a third year student.
1. It seems that your friend is in his second year at the University. 2. I've been told that your brother does experimental research in biology. 3. If I'm not mistaken, Popov did postgraduate research at your Institute. 4. To my mind, Dr. Brown is distinguished for his scientific research in theoretical physics. 5. For all I know, Dr. Ivanov gives lectures at the Polytechnical Institute. 6. I have recently learned that Peter is in his second year at the lnstitute of Electrical Engineering. 7. As far as I know, Dr. Somov does research in organic chemistry.
Ex. 5. Answer the following questions. Use the nouns: author, inventor, discoverer, founder.
Did Dickens write many books? Yes, he is the author of many books.
1. Did Columbus discover America? 2. Did Popov invent radio? 3. Did Leo Tolstoy write many novels? 4. Did Lomonosov found Moscow University? Ex. 6. Insert the definite or the indefinite article and read the sentences aloud.
1. Milton was. . . famous English poet. He was. . . author of “Paradise Lost”. 2. My scientific adviser is. . . distinguished scientist. He is. . . author of a great number of papers and monographs. 3. Marie Curie was. . . worldfamous physicist. 4. Do you happen to know who was. . . author of modern quantum mechanics? 5. Newton is known as. . . discoverer of the Laws of Motion. 6. Thomas Hunt Morgan is. . . author of many books. 7. Columbus was. . . great explorer. He is. . . discoverer of America. 8. Popov is. . . inventor of radio. 9. Edison is wellknown as. . . inventor.
Ex. 7. Confirm the following statements. Use: be famous for, be distinguished for, be known for.
Bohr made a distinguished contribution to science.
Yes, he did (that's right; you're right; exactly). He is distinguished for his contribution to science.
1. Feyman gave a wellknown course of lectures. 2. Mendeleyev discovered the Law of Periodicity. 3. Dickens wrote many worldfamous novels. 4. Columbus discovered America. 5. Rutherford did distinguished. research. Б. Copernicus developed his famous hypothesis.
Ex. 8. Answer the following questions.
Guttenberg was the inventor of printing, wasn't he? Yes (you're right; that's right; exactly, etc.), he is famous as the inventor (for having invented) printing.
1. StratfordonAvon is Shakespeare's. birthplace, isn't it? 2. Is Shroedinger the creator of wave mechanics? 3. Academician Ioffe founded the Soviet school of semiconductor physics, didn't he? 4. Is Novosibirsk a wellknown scientific centre? 5. Your native town has very beautiful architecture, hasn't it? 6. Did academician Pavlov advance the theory of conditioned reflexes? Ex. 9. Translate into English.
1. Мария Кюри известна тем, что она открыла радий. 2. Фарадей знаменит тем, что он сформулировал (formulate) закон электромагнитной индукции (electromagnetic induction). 3. Эдисон известен как изобретатель фонографа (phonograph). 4. Наш город знаменит своей архитектурой. 4. Гагарин прославился как первый космонавт (cosmonaut).
Ex. 10. Use the words and expressions in italics to compose a talk about a researcher in your field: be born; obtain (get) one's degree; work in collaboration with. . . (be associated with. . . ); advance the idea of. . . ; be the author of. . . ; recognize one's achievement; take a leading part in. . ., ete.
Ex. 11. React to the following statements or answer the questions. Use the verbs obtain or receive. Note that obtain means getting something through efforts (obtain data, evidence, information, knowledge, results). Receive means getting what is offered, given, sent (receive an award, a prize, a letter, a telegram, an invitation, news, education, training). However one can say obtain or receive a science degree.
You obtained some new data, didn't you? Yes, I'm glad to tell you that I obtained very interesting data.
1. I hear your scientific adviser has obtained some original experimental results. 27 When did you obtain your degree? 3. As far as I know Petrov has received an invitation to join our lab. 4. I understand that you received your education at Moscow University. 5. Did your scientific adviser receive the Lenin prize? 6. Have you obtained all the necessary experimental data? 7. Do you think the results you obtained will help you to make final conclusions? 8. Have you received any news from your collaborators who are now on an expedition to the North? Ex. 12. Translate into English using the verbs get, obtain, receive.
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