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М. Я. Блох





Допущено Министерством просвещения СССР

в качестве учебника для студентов

педагогических институтов по специальности

Москва «Высшая школа» 1983

№ 2103 «Иностранные языки»

Сканирование, распознавание, проверка:

Корректор, сентябрь 2004 г.

Для некоммерческого использования.

Исправлено десять опечаток.

Орфография из амер. переведена в брит.


кафедра английского языка Горьковского педагоги­чес­ко­го института иностранных языков им. Н. А. Добро­лю­бова и доктор филол. наук, проф. Л. Л. Нелюбин.

Блох М. Я.

Б70 Теоретическая грамматика английского языка: Учебник. Для студентов филол.

фак. унтов и фак. англ. яз. педвузов. — М.: Высш. школа, 1983.— с. 383 В пер.:

1 р.

В учебнике рассматриваются важнейшие проблемы морфологии и синтаксиса английского языка в свете ведущих принципов современного системного языкознания. Введение в теоретические проблемы грамматики осуществляется на фоне обобщающего описания основ грамматического строя английского языка. Особое внимание уделяется специальным методам научного анализа грамматических явлений и демонстрации исследовательских приемов на конкретном текстовом материале с целью развития у студентов профессионального лингвистического мышления. Учебник написан на английском языке.

ББК 81.2 Англ9 4И (Англ) © Издательство «Высшая школа», 1983.

CONTENTS Page Preface Chapter I. Grammar in the Systemic Conception of Language.. Chapter II. Morphemic Structure of the Word Chapter III. Categorial Structure of the Word Chapter IV. Grammatical Classes of Words Chapter V. Noun: General Chapter VI. Noun: Gender Chapter VII. Noun: Number Chapter VIII. Noun: Case Chapter IX. Noun: Article Determination Chapter X. Verb: General Chapter XI. NonFinite Verbs (Verbids) Chapter XII. Finite Verb: Introduction Chapter XIII. Verb: Person and Number Chapter XIV. Verb; Tense Chapter XV. Verb: Aspect Chapter XVI. Verb: Voice Chapter XVII. Verb: Mood Chapter XVIII. Adjective Chapter XIX. Adverb... Chapter XX. Syntagmatic Connections of Words Chapter XXI. Sentence: General... Chapter XXII. Actual Division of the Sentence Chapter XXIII. Communicative Types of Sentences Chapter XXIV. Simple Sentence: Constituent Structure... Chapter XXV. Simple Sentence: Paradigmatic Structure... Chapter XXVI. Composite Sentence as a Polypredicative Construction Chapter XXVII. Complex Sentence Chapter XXVIII. Compound Sentence Chapter XXIX. SemiComplex Sentence Chapter XXX. SemiCompound Sentence....... Chapter XXXI. Sentence in the Text A List of Selected Bibliography Subject Index PREFACE This book, containing a theoretical outline of English grammar, is intended as a manual for the departments of English in Universities and Teachers' Colleges.

Its purpose is to present an introduction to the problems of uptodate grammatical study of English on a systemic basis, sustained by demonstrations of applying modern analytical techniques to various grammatical phenomena of living English speech.

The suggested description of the grammatical structure of English, reflecting the author's experience as a lecturer on theoretical English grammar for students specialising as teachers of English, naturally, cannot be regarded as exhaustive in any point of detail. While making no attempt whatsoever to depict the grammar of English in terms of the minutiae of its arrangement and functioning (the practical mastery of the elements of English grammar is supposed to have been gained by the student at the earlier stages of tuition), we rather deem it as our immediate aims to supply the student with such information as will enable him to form judgments of his own on questions of diverse grammatical intricacies; to bring forth in the student a steady habit of trying to see into the deeper implications underlying the outward appearances of lingual correlations bearing on grammar; to teach him to independently improve his linguistic qualifications through reading and critically appraising the available works on grammatical language study, including the current materials in linguistic journals; to foster his competence in facing academic controversies concerning problems of grammar, which, unfortunately but inevitably, are liable to be aggravated by polemical excesses and terminological discrepancies.

In other words, we wish above all to provide for the condition that, on finishing his study of the subject matter of the book, under the corresponding guidance of his College tutor, the student should progress in developing a grammaticallyoriented mode of understanding facts of language, viz. in mastering that which, in the long run, should distinguish a professional linguist from a layman.

The emphasis laid on cultivating an active element in the student's approach to language and its grammar explains why the book gives prominence both to the technicalities of grammatical observations and to the general methodology of linguistic knowledge: the due application of the latter will lend the necessary demonstrative force to any serious consideration of the many special points of grammatical analysis. In this connection, throughout the whole of the book we have tried to point out the progressive character of the development of modern grammatical theory, and to show that in the course of disputes and continued research in manifold particular fields, the grammatical domain of linguistic science arrives at an ever more adequate presentation of the structure of language in its integral description.

We firmly believe that this kind of outlining the foundations of the discipline in question is especially important at the present stage of the developing linguistic knowledge — the knowledge which, far from having been bypassed by the general twentieth century advance of science, has found itself in the midst of it. Suffice it to cite such new ideas and principles introduced in the grammatical theory of our times, and reflected in the suggested presentation, as the grammatical aspects of the correlation between language and speech; the interpretation of grammatical categories on the strictly oppositional basis;

the demonstration of grammatical semantics with the help of structural modelling; the functionalperspective patterning of utterances; the rise of the paradigmatic approach to syntax; the expansion of syntactic analysis beyond the limits of a separate sentence into the broad sphere of the continual text; and, finally, the systemic principle of description applied to the interpretation of language in general and its grammatical structure in particular.

It is by actively mastering the essentials of these developments that the student will be enabled to cope with the grammatical aspects of his future linguistic work as a graduate teacher of English.

Materials illustrating the analysed elements of English grammar have been mostly collected from the literary works of British and American authors. Some of the offered examples have been subjected to slight alterations aimed at giving the necessary prominence to the lingual phenomena under study. Source references for limited stretches of text are not supplied except in cases of special relevance (such as implications of individual style or involvement of contextual background).

The author pays tribute to his friends and colleagues — teachers of the Lenin State Pedagogical Institute (Moscow) for encouragement and help they extended to him during the years of his work on the presented matters.

The author's sincere thanks are due to the staff of the English Department of the Dobrolyubov State Pedagogical Institute of Foreign Languages (Gorky) and to Prof. L. L. Nelyubin for the trouble they took in reviewing the manuscript.

Their valuable advice and criticisms were carefully taken into consideration for the final preparation of the text.

M. Blokh CHAPTER I GRAMMAR IN THE SYSTEMIC CONCEPTION OF LANGUAGE § 1. Language is a means of forming and storing ideas as reflections of reality and exchanging them in the process of human intercourse. Language is social by nature; it is inseparably connected with the people who are its creators and users; it grows and develops together with the development of society.* Language incorporates the three constituent parts ("sides"), each being inherent in it by virtue of its social nature. These parts are the phonological system, the lexical system, the grammatical system. Only the unity of these three elements forms a language; without any one of them there is no human language in the above sense.

The phonological system is the subfoundation of language; it determines the material (phonetical) appearance of its significative units. The lexical system is the whole set of naming means of language, that is, words and stable wordgroups. The grammatical system is the whole set of regularities determining the combination of naming means in the formation of utterances as the embodiment of thinking process.

Each of the three constituent parts of language is studied by a particular linguistic discipline. These disciplines, presenting a series of approaches to their particular objects of analysis, give the corresponding "descriptions" of language consisting in ordered expositions of the constituent parts in question. Thus, the phonological description of language is effected by the science of phonology; the lexical description of language is effected by the science of lexicology; the * See: Общее языкознание. Формы существования, функции, история языка/Отв. ред.

Серебренников Б. А. — М., 1970, с. 9 и cл.

grammatical description of language is effected by the science of grammar.

Any linguistic description may have a practical or theoretical purpose. A practical description is aimed at providing the student with a manual of practical mastery of the corresponding part of language (within the limits determined by various factors of educational destination and scientific possibilities). Since the practice of lingual intercourse, however, can only be realised by employing language as a unity of all its constituent parts, practical linguistic manuals more often than not comprise the three types of description presented in a complex. As for theoretical linguistic descriptions, they pursue analytical aims and therefore present the studied parts of language in relative isolation, so as to gain insights into their inner structure and expose the intrinsic mechanisms of their functioning. Hence, the aim of theoretical grammar of a language is to present a theoretical description of its grammatical system, i.e. to scientifically analyse and define its grammatical categories and study the mechanisms of grammatical formation of utterances out of words in the process of speech making.

§ 2. In earlier periods of the development of linguistic knowledge, grammatical scholars believed that the only purpose of grammar was to give strict rules of writing and speaking correctly. The rigid regulations for the correct ways of expression, for want of the profound understanding of the social nature of language, were often based on purely subjective and arbitrary judgements of individual grammar compilers. The result of this "prescriptive" approach was, that alongside of quite essential and useful information, nonexistent "rules" were formulated that stood in sheer contradiction with the existing language usage, i.e. lingual reality. Traces of this arbitrary prescriptive approach to the grammatical teaching may easily be found even in todate's school practice.

To refer to some of the numerous examples of this kind, let us consider the wellknown rule of the English article stating that the noun which denotes an object "already known" by the listener should be used with the definite article. Observe, however, English sentences taken from me works of distinguished authors directly contradicting "I've just read a book of yours about Spain and I wanted to ask you about it."

— "It's not a very good book, I'm afraid" (S. Maugham). I feel a good deal of hesitation about telling you this story of my own. You see it is not a story like other stories I have been telling you: it is a true story (J. K. Jerome).

Or let us take the rule forbidding the use of the continuous tenseforms with the verb be as a link, as well as with verbs of perceptions. Here are examples to the contrary:

My holiday at Crome isn't being a disappointment (A. Huxley). For the first time, Bobby felt, he was really seeing the man (A. Christie).

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